The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a lipid-derived signaling system discovered within the past decade. Cannabinoids, which are homeostatic regulators, circulate throughout human and animal systems continuously, affecting all physiological processes.
The human endocannabinoid system is responsible for memory networks in the brain, both excitatory and inhibitory, including the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells which regulate the timing of the endocannabinoids in accordance with the brains needs, pain perception, mood, appetite and taste regulation and metabolic function which regulates a storage of energy and transport of cellular nutrition.
Many scientists believe that your endocannabinoid system’s main function is to regulate and stabilize the processes necessary for survival. This is known as homeostasis. Some researchers believe that disease is caused by a failure within the endocannabinoid system to remain balanced. The endocannabinoid system affects the lipocytes and fat cells collectively known as adipocytes, hepatocytes, gastrointestinal tract, musculoskeletal system, and the endocrine system.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive and non-toxic compound which has been demonstrated to positively affect the human endocannabinoid system. CBD is a naturally occurring compound in human and animal species. CBD is also a phytocannabinoid derived from the industrial hemp plant.
The endocannabinoid system is comprised of CB1 and CB2 receptors, which bind directly or indirectly to cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids. CB1 receptors are excitatory and are located in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, as well as the lungs, kidney, and liver. CB2 receptors regulate immunological responses and are located in the immune and circulatory systems.
CBD has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors in the human body but acts as an indirect antagonist of their agonists. Antagonists are defined as substances that stop or inhibit the effects of another substance on the cellular surface, producing the same effect as a substance which would normally bind to the receptor. Agonists are chemicals that bind to receptors and elicit a biological response. Therefore CBD may enhance the therapeutic effects of THC, possibly by increasing the density of CB1 receptors.
Endogenous compounds such as Anandamine and 2Arachidonyglycerol are made by mammals from lipids and bind directly to the CB1 and CB2 receptors serving as neurotransmitters for Cannabinoids. CBD increases the amount of Anadamine and other vital lipids thereby indirectly increasing the availability of circulating cannabinoids to bind with CB1 and CB2 receptors.
Cannabinoid receptors, CB1, and CB2 facilitate the responses of the ECS in the body, which are critical to maintaining homeostasis. Because some phytocannabinoids, cannabinoids of the Cannabis Plant and Hemp CBD, mimic components of the endocannabinoid system of the human body, the effects are of interest in the medical management of multiple disorders, including disorders of the ocular system, which is directly affected by the immunological and cardiovascular systems.
Three categories differentiate the types of Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency, which are associated with different disease processes and disorders - Genetic, Acquired, and Idiopathic Auto Immune.
CBD has been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier and exert antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective properties, rendering it valuable in the prevention and treatment of oxidative ocular disorders and diseases. Indeed research indicates that both THC and CBD have neuroprotective and therapeutic ocular benefits.